There is a small body of literature that reflects a somewhat critical perspective on electronic monitoring. Here are a few of these publications:

Burrell, W. and R. Gable. (2008) “From B.F. Skinner to Spiderman to Martha Stewart: The past, present, and future of electronic monitoring of offenders.” Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 46 (3/4) 101-108.

Gable, R. (n.d.) “My professional home page.” Accessed at:   September 6, 2012.

Kilgore, James (2012) “Progress or more of the same? Electronic monitoring and parole in the age of mass incarceration,” Critical Criminology, November, available at:

___________, (2012) “The Rise of Electronic Monitoring in the Criminal Justice System” Counterpunch, April 30 at:

_______________. (2011)“Would you like an ankle bracelet with that?”  Dissent magazine on line at:

Koran, M. (2013) “Lost signals, disconnected lives,” Report for Wisconsin Watch March 24. Available at:

Lilly, R. J. (2006) “Issues Beyond Empirical EM Reports,” Criminology and Public Policy. Vol 5, No. 1. 93-101.

____________  (1996) “Profit and Penalty: An analysis of the corrections-commercial complex,” Crime and Delinquency. 42:3-20.

Murphy, E.( 2008). “Paradigms of Restraint”,  Duke Law Journal, 57 Duke I.J. 1323-61.

Nellis, M. and R. Bas (2012) Electronically Monitored Punishment: International and critical perspectives, London: Taylor and Francis.

______. (2005) “Electronic Monitoring, satellite tracking, and the new punitiveness in England and Wales.” J. Pratt et al. (Eds.) The New Punitiveness: Trends, Stories, Perspectives. Portland OR: Willan. 167-88

Paterson, C. (2009) Understanding the Electronic Monitoring of Offenders: Commercial Criminal Justice in England and Wales; Saarbrucken, Germany: VDM Verlag Dr. Muller.

Payne, B. et al.  (2009) “Attitudes about electronic monitoring: Minority and majority racial group differences.155-62.” Journal of Criminal Justice. 37(2)

Phelan, S. (2010) “Who profits from ICE’s electronic monitoring anklets? San Francisco Bay Guardian Online, March 16, accessed from:    on July 9, 2011.

Saletan, W. (2005). “Call my cell: Why GPS tracking is good news for inmates.” Slate. May 7, 2005. accessed June 15, 2011.

Shklovski, I. et al. (2009) “The commodification of location: Dynamics of power in location-based systems.” Paper presented to the International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing, Orlando, Florida. October 2.

Staples, W. and S. Decker. (2011) “Between the ‘home’ and ‘institutional’ worlds: Tensions and contradictions in the practice of house arrest.” Critical Criminology. 18: 1-20.

Wood, Graeme (2010) “Prison Without Walls,” Atlantic Magazine, available at:

There is a much larger body of mainstream literature which largely reflects a  view of electronic monitoring as a mode of punishment and control. There are at least three bibliographies of this literature:

Development Services Group. (2009). “Home Confinement/Electronic Monitoring Literature Review”. Report to Department of Justice, Washington DC.

N.A. (1996) “An annotated bibliography of electronic monitoring research and literature.” Journal of Offender Monitoring. 9 (1)  11-28.

Vollum, Scott. (2002) “Electronic monitoring: a research review.”  Corrections Compendium, 27 (7).

Some examples of this literature,much of which can be found in the Journal Of Offender Monitoring, include:

Bales, W. et al. (2010) “A Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment of Electronic Monitoring,” Report Submitted to the Office of Justice Program National Institute of Justice U.S. Department of Justice. January, 2010.

Ballard J. and K. Mullendore, (2002) “Legal Issues Related to Electronic Monitoring Programs”. Journal of Offender Monitoring. Summer/Fall. p. 17.

Corrections Center of Northwest Ohio. (2011) “Policy and Procedures.” Stryker OH.

DeMichele, M. and B.K . Payne, (2009) “Offender supervision with electronic technology.”  Report for Bureau of Justice, Washington D.C. 2nd edition.

Gibbons Media and Research. (2012)  “GPS-Aided Monitoring of Parolees: No Privacy Issues, Just a Large Addressable Market.” Accessed at:  September 6, 2012.

Gies, S. et al (2012) “Monitoring High Risk Sex Offenders with GPS Technology: An evaluation of California’s Supervision Program.” Report for National Institute of Justice, Washington DC.

International Association of Police Chiefs. (2008) “Tracking Sex Offenders With Electronic Monitoring Technology: Implications and Practical Uses for Law Enforcement”

Johnston, W. J. (2004) “Let’s Talk About…Offender Pay Programs,” Journal of Offender Monitoring, Winter/Spring 2004. 11-20.

Jolin, A and B. Stipak. (1992). “Drug and treatment and electronically monitored home confinement: An evaluation of a community-based sentencing option.” Crime and Delinquency, 38(2). 158-70.

Jones, M. and D. Ross. (1997). “Electronic house arrest and boot camp in North Carolina: Comparing Recidivism.” Criminal Justice Policy Review, 8 (4), 383-403.

____________ et al. (1993). “Electronic monitoring of the drunk driver: A seven-year study of the home confinement alternative.” Crime and Delinquency, 39 (4) 462-484.

Maxfield, M. G. and T.L. Baumer. (1990) “Home Detention with Electronic Monitoring: Comparing pre-trial and post-conviction programs.” Crime and Delinquency, 36(4) 521-36.

National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center, (1999) Online Bulletin, National Institute of Justice,  accessed July 9, 2011

Padgett, K. et al. (2006).  “Under Surveillance: An empirical test of the effectiveness and consequences of electronic monitoring.” Criminology and Public Policy 5(1) 61-92.

Schmidt, A.K. (1988) “Use of Electronic Monitoring by Criminal Justice Agencies,” Report for National Criminal Justice Research  Service: Washington DC.